Topics: Kerala, Literacy, Economy of Kerala Pages: 34 (12710 words) Published: August 9, 2013
Kerala model
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Location of Kerala in India
The Kerala model of development, based on the development experience of the southern Indian state of Kerala, refers to the state's achievement of significant improvements in material conditions of living, reflected in indicators of social development that are comparable to that of many developed countries, even though the state's per capita income is low in comparison to them.[1] Achievements such as low levels of infant mortality and population growth, and high levels of literacy and life expectancy, along with the factors responsible for such achievements have been considered the constituting elements of the Kerala model.[1][2] More precisely, the Kerala model has been defined as:

* A set of high material quality-of-life indicators coinciding with low per-capita incomes, both distributed across nearly the entire population of Kerala. * A set of wealth and resource redistribution programmes that have largely brought about the high material quality-of-life indicators. * High levels of political participation and activism among ordinary people along with substantial numbers of dedicated leaders at all levels. Kerala's mass activism and committed cadre were able to function within a largely democratic structure, which their activism has served to reinforce.[2] Contents

* 1 History
* 1.1 In 1970
* 1.2 Human Development Index
* 1.2.1 In 1990
* 1.2.2 In 2011
* 2 Reasons for the Kerala Model
* 2.1 Health Care
* 2.2 Kerala model of healthcare
* 2.3 Political awareness
* 2.4 Education
* 2.5 State Policy
* 2.6 Hunger
* 3 Criticism
* 4 Opinions
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
History[edit source | editbeta]

Mahbub-ul-Haq, the pioneer of Human development theory and founder of the Human Development Report. The Centre for Development Studies at Thiruvananthapuram with the help of United Nations, conducted a case study of selected issues with reference to Kerala in 1970s. The results and recommendations of this study came to be known as the 'Kerala model' of equitable growth which emphasised land reforms, poverty reduction, educational access and child welfare. Professor K. N. Raj, a renowned economist who played an important role in India's planned development, drafting sections of India's first Five Year Plan, and a member of the first UN Committee for Development Planning in 1966, was the main person behind this study. He started the Centre for Development Studies in Thiruvananthapuram in 1971, by the request of the Kerala Chief Minister C Achutha Menon.[3][4] The Kerala model brought a sea change in development thinking which was until then obsessed with achieving high GDP growth rates. However,Pakistani Economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, changed the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies. To produce the Human Development Report (HDRs), Haq brought together a group of well known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. In collaboration with Raj’s close colleague Amartya Sen, he persuaded the UNDP to carry out work on Human Development Indicators (HDIs) which started playing a larger role than GDP in the framing of development policies. Another decade down the road, the Millennium Development Goals, embracing many of the Kerala Model’s features — with the notable omission of land reforms — became the new charter of development. Raj's seminal contribution to development policy thus had worldwide repercussions.[3][4] In 1970[edit source | editbeta]

The Human Development Index, which was introduced by the United Nations Development Programme (a branch of the United...

References: 11 July, 2013
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Kerela Essay
  • Demographic in Kerela Essay
  • agricultural regionalisation in assam and kerela Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free